How to be a Better Ally to First Generation and/or Lower-Income Students
by Sloan Talbot, Duke Alumna T'19 and former 1GLI Students, Nowicki Fellow 2019-2021
The Guide at a Glance
- The tools and ideas below are meant to be a jumping off point for resources that faculty and staff can employ to better serve 1G/LI students in the classroom and beyond
- It is by no means comprehensive of Duke’s resources or best practices but will hopefully give better understanding to some of the common problems first-generation/low-income students may face and how faculty may be help to lessen these burdens
- The term first-generation/lower-income (1G/LI) for this post follow Duke University’s framework which refers to students who come from families where their custodial parent does not hold a baccalaureate degree and/or identify as being lower-income or of low socioeconomic status at their institution (Duke University, 2019).
- These terms are inherently vague and used in many different definitions and contexts.
- For a starting point, see the U.S. Department of Education’s breakdown of “low-income” here (Office of Post-Secondary Education, 2019).
- While some students may be first-generation and lower-income, it is important not to assume this is the norm for everyone. Students can and do identify as only 1G, as only LI, or as both 1GLI.
- All identities should be used in an inclusive framework to best serve the diversity of our student body.
- “Students perceive a dearth of academic and social information capital.” (Daly, Hartsell-Gundy, Chapman, and Yang, 2018)
1G and low-income (LI) students often come to campus feeling like they know less about how the academic system works and functions compared to their peers.
What to do about it?
Explain everything. Even if you feel like you are overly explaining a topic, research opportunity, office hours- it is better to assume that some students don’t know what these are and you should talk about it in class or explain it in an email rather than assume the opposite.
“Finances are stressful, and an early source of feeling unwelcome.” (Daly et al, 2018)
1G/LI students bear a financial burden that cannot be overlooked in a classroom setting. While some may have merit or need based scholarships, it is important to not assume these cover all costs of attendance.
What to do about it?
Disclose all classroom costs. It is essential to write out all required textbooks, materials, items, and special equipment in the course description, as well as put it on your syllabus and on Duke HUB. While costs may not be known until closer to the actual first day of class, it is important to let students know as soon as possible so they can plan ahead.
If a student is worried about cost of books, materials, or equipment- advise them to speak to their financial counselor first about options. This lessens the burden on them to find funding and allows students to choose a course based on content and interest without worrying about financial burden as a factor.
For items that are consistently used year after year like a required text book or a clicker, offer a system where students can resell their used books or clickers to new students such as Duke List, or Facebook Marketplace.
It can also be a great idea to have a few extra copies on hand for students to borrow. Putting all required books and texts on reserve at the library is extremely helpful. It ensures that students will be able to have access to the text to make copies or scan pages they need without restricting access to other students who may also need to use the library copy.
“An ecosystem of supportive offices and people on campus is critical, but knowledge of and willingness to access resources takes time.” (Daly et al, 2018)
Students can feel excluded from access to identity groups, resource centers, and programs on campus due to feeling like they don’t belong in those spaces, or should not need to use them.
What to do about it?
Make individual appointments part of your class culture. Instead of generically referencing office hours or TA’s after class, be open in class discussion about how students can and should use you or your TA’s as resources. Pass along appointment signup sheets during class, or have a link to your online appointment scheduler at the bottom of your email.
The more accessible and normalized your office hours or appointments are, the more likely students will take advantage. It is also highly important to talk about and put in your syllabus resources like the ARC, CAPS, Duke Reach, Testing, Academic Advising, tutoring or writing workshops, and financial aid, and to discuss this with students on how it pertains to your particular class. While students may be familiar with what these resources are, they will be more likely to use them if they see a direct correlation between what your class is and expects from them, and how those resources can help them navigate those expectations.
“1G challenges are challenges common to many Duke students.” (Daly et al, 2018)
One of the most important aspects to this guide is that all of these tools and tip are helpful for all students. It is especially important to normalize all of these behaviors and resources in your classroom as something that all can benefit from. This not only helps with de-stigmatization of asking for help, but also will benefit the entire class.
What to do about it?
Normalize everything. It is important in adding these resources to your syllabus or having these class discussions that you do not single these out as resources specific to low-income and/or first-generation students alone. These added parameters and information are beneficial to everyone and should be discussed as such.
Corresponding Blog Post https://blogs.library.duke.edu/bitstreams/2018/10/02/1g-students-at-duke/
- “Advisors must have a comprehensive knowledge of the campus resources that could help these students including programs geared for first-generation students.” (NACADA and Sickles, 2012)
“Thinking of First Generation Students as Pioneers not Problems” https://www.chronicle.com/article/Think-of-First-Generation/135710/?cid=at&goback=.gde_73549_member_186217662&utm_medium=en&utm_source=at
“Things Working Class 1G Students Want to Know During College” https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/abc.21093
“College is harder than the classes students take- especially if they are 1G/LI” https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/09/10/magazine/college-inequality.html
NACADA general resources https://nacada.ksu.edu/Resources/Clearinghouse/View-Articles/First-Generation-Students-Resources.aspx
Center for First-Generation Student Success https://firstgen.naspa.org/
Conferences for Students
The Privileged Poor https://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?isbn=9780674976894
AL1GN Conference. (2017). Retrieved October 21, 2019.
Center for First Generation Success. (2017, November 20).
Defining First-Generation. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
Daly, E., Hartsell-Gundy, A., Chapman, J., & Yang, B. (2018).
Understanding the experiences and needs of 1G students at Duke . Understanding the experiences and needs of 1G students at Duke . Duke University Libraries.
Duke University . (2019).
Office of Undergraduate Education-Promoting Student Success. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
EdMobilizer. (2017). Retrieved October 18, 2019.
Greenwald, R. (2012, November 11).
Think of First Generation Students as Pioneers, not Problems . Retrieved October 10, 2019.
Jack, A. A. (2019, September 10).
I Was a Low-Income College Student. Classes Weren’t the Hard Part. Retrieved October 10, 2019.
Jack, A. A. (2019). The privileged poor: How elite colleges are failing disadvantaged students. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
NACADA, & Renee Sickles, A. (2012, November 5).
First-generation students. Retrieved October 10, 2019.
NACADA. (2012, November 5).
First-Generation Students Resources. Retrieved October 10, 2019.
Office of Postsecondary Education. (2019, February 21).
Federal TRIO Programs Current-Year Low-Income Levels. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
Oldfield, K. (2012, December 3).
Still humble and hopeful: Two more recommendations on welcoming first‐generation poor and working‐class students to college. Retrieved October 10, 2019.